Immunology is a specialty, like haematology, which often involves  both laboratory medicine (the testing of specimens collected from patients) and clinical practice (interviewing, examining and advising patients about clinical problems).

In the laboratory, immunologists are involved in the design, performance and supervision of tests of the  immune system. These include, for example, testing for "allergy antibodies" (IgE) to determine whether patients have allergies to various substances, the measurement of different classes of antibody proteins to determine the state of the immune system's defence mechanisms, or monitoring the level of T-lymphocytes, the cells that disappear after HIV infection.

Clinical activities of an Immunopathologist include providing advice on a wide variety of other disorders including recurrent miscarriage and some areas of transplantation medicine. They may also be directly involved in managing patients with autoimmune diseases and AIDS.